My interpretation of the quote
I think that he wants to say, routines are bad for your health, and if you don't have a lot of them, you will live more time.
If you don't have routines that means that you don't have a lot obligations that can stress you, or can affect your mood. Maybe because for example you are rich, or because your job is very different every day.
It would be good to know who is Amos Bronson Alcott to understand better the quote. Is he a psychologist?, a doctor?
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